Home > About the UGC > Publications > Other Publications > 2000 > Cover > A Documentary Study for Arrangements for Credit Accumulation and Transfer in Higher Education

A Documentary Study for Arrangements for Credit Accumulation and Transfer in Higher Education



Ainley P Degrees of Difference: Higher Education in the 1990s, Lawrence & Wishart, London, 1994

Allen R and Layer G Credit-based Systems as Vehicles for Change in Universities and Colleges, Kogan Page, London, 1995

Barnett R ed Learning to Effect, SRHE/OU, London, 1992

Barnett R The Limits of Competence, SRHE/OU, London, 1994

Barnett R Towards a Higher Education for a New Century, Institute of Education, University of London, 1997

Berdahl RO, Moodie GC and Spitzberg IJ eds Quality and Access in Higher Education, SRHE/OU, 1991

Biggs J 'When Academia loses value', South China Morning Post, 13 February 2000

Christensen L 'Academic Tourism, a redundant or fruitful study abroad - tracks and wrong tracks to credit transfer', Higher Education Management, Vol 6 No 1, 1994

Davidson G 'Credit Accumulation and Transfer and the Student Experience' in Barnett R Learning to Effect, SRHE/OU, London, 1992

Duke C The Learning University: towards a new paradigm, SRHE, 1992

Duke C 'Towards a Lifelong Curriculum' in Coffield F and Williamson B eds Repositioning Higher Education, SRHE/OU, 1997

Evans N Experiential Learning: its assessment and accreditation, London, Routledge, 1992

Evans N and Turner A The Potential of the Assessment of Experiential Learning in Universities, Learning from Experience Trust, Employment Department, 1993

Feagles Shelley ed A Guide to Educational Systems Around the World, National Association of Foreign Student Advisers (NAFSA), Washington D.C., 1999

Goedegebuure L, Kaiser F, Maassen P, Meek L, van Vught F and de Weert E eds Higher Education Policy An International Comparative Perspective, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1993

Gren A and Steedman H Educational Provision, Educational Attainment and the Needs of Industry: a review of research for Germany, France, Japan and Britain, NIESR, London, 1993

Harman G Student Selection and Admission to Higher Education: Policies and Practices in the Asian Region in Higher Education vol 27 no 3 pp 313-39, 1994

Layer G 'Credit Accumulation and Transfer' in Calder J ed Disaffection and Diversity, Falmer Press, London, 1993

OECD Lifelong Learning for All, Paris OECD, 1996

OECD Reviews of National Policies for Education Series:

The Russian Federation, 1998

Sweden, 1995

Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition: About PLAR

http://www.plar.com/ about_plar/index.html

Rago O The Academic Credit System in Higher Education: effectiveness and relevance in developing countries, World Bank, 1992

Robertson D 'Modularisation, Semesters and CATS - lessons from the 'new' Universities', in Davidson G and Power B Semesterisation, Modularity, Credit Accumulation and Transfer: Harmony and Development, papers from the 4th CVCP seminar, Open University, 1992

Roberston D 'Credit Frameworks - An International Comparison', Discussing Credit, FEU, 1993

Robertson D 'Flexibility and Mobility in Further and Higher Education: Policy Continuity and Progress', Journal of Further and Higher Education, Vol 17 No 1, 1993

Robertson D 'Aspirations, Achievement and Progression in Post-Secondary and Higher Education' in Burke J ed Outcomes, Learning and the Curriculum, Falmer Press, 1994

Rothblatt S and Wittrock B ed The European and American University since 1800, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993

Rothblatt S The Modern University and its Discontents: the fate of Newman's legacies in Britain and America, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997

Rustin M 'Flexibility in Higher Education' in Burrows R and Loader B eds Towards a Post-Fordist Welfare State? Routledge, London & New York, 1994

Schuller T et al 'How Two-Year Degrees Help to Widen Student Opportunities', The Times Higher Education Supplement, 30 November 1990

Scott P The Meanings of Mass Higher Education, SRHE/OU, 1995

Trowler P 'Angels in Marble? Accrediting Prior Experiential Learning in Higher Education' in Studies in Higher Education, Number 21(1), 1996

Waterhouse R 'A University for Life', in Mitchell P ed Beyond the Universities: a new higher education, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 1998

Wickremasinghe W Handbook of World Education. A Comparative Guide to Higher Education & Educational Systems of the World, American Collegiate Service,Houston, 1991

Links to the Web-sites of individual institutions included in the text for illustrative purposes have not been reproduced below. Links to all major sites are contained in the list of Appendices.


Australian Education Council National Qualifications Framework, proposals for a national credit framework, AEC, 1993

Australian Qualifications Framework Advisory Board to MCEETYA AQF Implementation Handbook 1998, AQF, 1998


AVCC-ANTA Preliminary Report from the joint VETASSESS-UTS Project Team 1999

http://www.bhtafe.edu.au/VetAssess/ credtrans/PreliminaryReport.doc  [Word file]

AVCC National TAFE-University Credit Transfer Schemes

http://www.avcc.edu.au/ avcc/actp/acts.html

Chapman B Austudy: towards a more flexible approach Canberra: Australian National University

Cohen R, Flowers R, McDonald R and Schaafsma H Learning From Experience Counts: Recognition of Prior Learning in Australian Universities, Commissioned report for the Credit Transfer Working Party on Credit Transfer and RPL, Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee, 1993

Golding Barry 'Intersectional Articulation and Quality Assurance', Journal of Tertiary Educational Administration, Vol. 17, No.1, pp.21-38, May 1995


British Columbia Online Transfer Guide : BCCAT Online


Collins M Prior Learning Assessment in Canada and Abroad: Implications for Universities unpublished manuscript, Canadian Association of University Continuing Education, 1995

Council of Ministers of Education, Canada Pan-Canadian Protocol on the Transferability of university credits, 1995


Innerd W et al Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition: The learning Outcomes-Based Approach - A handbook University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, 1997

Keast D et al Capstone: An Experiment in Articulation of College and University Studies, Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education, Calgary, Alberta, 1994

Wong AT Prior Learning Assessment: A Guide for University Faculty and Administrators, University of Saskatchewan, University Extension Press, Saskatoon, 1996


Bai L 'The Metamorphosis of China's higher education in the 1990s', Oxford Studies in Comparative Education, 1997

Hayhoe R China's Universities 1895-1995: A century of cultural conflict, CERC, Hong Kong, 1999


Adam S and Blok P 'ECTS: from credit transfer to credit accumulation - a challenge for the 21st century' in EAIE Forum (Journal of the European Association for International Education), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 8-9, Autumn 1999

A Guide to Higher Education Systems and Qualifications in the EU and EEA Countries, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1998

Blok P The First Extension Phase of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) Working Document for the ECTS Evaluation Meetings, March/April 1996, University of Amsterdam, 1996

Council of Europe Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region 1997


Dalichow F 'Cats and Eurocats' in EAIE Forum (Journal of the European Association for International Education), Vol 1. No. 3, pp.6-8, Autumn 1999

ECTS home page http://europa.eu.int/comm/ education/socrates/ects.html

EHEA (European Higher Education Area) Joint Declaration of the European Ministers of Higher Education (the 'Bologna declaration'), CRE, Geneva, 1997 (available on-line from http://www.rks.dk/trends1.html)

Kirstein J Trends in Learning Structures in Higher Education project report for the Bologna conference of European Ministers of Education 1999


Maiworm F, Steube W and Teichler U Learning in Europe: the ERASMUS Experience, Jessica Kingsley, 1991

Pollard D R 'Credit Accumulation and Transfer Systems within Europe: Future Challenge' in Flexible Responses in Higher Education: Strategies and Scenarios for the Use of Open and Distance Education in Mainstream Higher Education, December 1993

Scholten A and Blok P The Second Extension Phase of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) (Working Document for the ECTS Evaluation Meeting, June 1997), University of Amsterdam, 1997


Ako Tomako Report on Recent Reform of Credit Transfer and Accumulation System in Japan Unpublished text, 2000

'Chibakennai 37 Daigaku Tandai ni Okeru Tan-i Gokan ni Tsuite' (Credit Transfer in 37 Universities and Junior Colleges of Chiba Prefecture) in Daigaku to Gakusei (University and Student), Number 396, 1998


Hashimoto K 'Atarashii Gakushi no Genjo to Kadai: Gakui Juyo Kiko ni Yoru Gakui Shutokusha no Profile' (Current Situation and Future Prospects of the Bachelor of NIAD) in Gakui Kenkyu (The Journal of the National Institution for Academic Degrees), Number 9, 1998

'Hirakareta daigaku dukuri' (Making Universities More Open to the Public) in Diagaku Shiryo (Data on Universities), Number 396, Monbusho koto kyoiku kyoku (Bureau of Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture), 1998

Investigation on the Viewpoint of University and Junior College Students/Graduates Studying in Specialised Training Colleges, Association of Tokyo Municipality Specialised Training Colleges and Miscellaneous Schools, 1996

Japanese Government Policies in Education, Science and Culture, Monbusho (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture), March 1998 (http://www.monbu.go.jp/haksuyo/eng)

Keidanren Kawaru Kigyo no Saiyo Kodo to Jinji System: Kyoiku Kaikaku ni Mukete no Kigyo kara no Message (Changing Employment and Personnel System - a Message from Companies for Educational Reform), 1998

Kurauchi S 'Senmongakkou to Korekara no Kotokyoiku System' (Specialised Training College and Higher Education System in the Future) in Daigaku to Gakusei (University and Student), Number 402, 1998


Monbusho Gakkou Kihon Chousa (Basic Investigation of Schools), 1998

The National Institution for Academic Degrees (http://www.niad.ac.jp)

Shibazaki S 'Yuragi no Naka no Daigaku Tandai to Senmongakkou' (Changing Universities, Junior Colleges and Specialised Training Colleges) in Daigaku to Gakusei (University and Student), Number 402, 1998

Toward the Achievement of a Lifelong Learning Society, Monbusho 1999

(http://www.monbu.go.jp/aramashi/ 1999/eng03/e03-2.html)

A Vision for Universities in the 21st Century and Reform Measures: To Be Distinctive Universities in a Competitive Environment, Report of the University Council, October 1998 (http://www.monbu.go.jp/series-en/00000015/)

The Work of NIAD 1997-1998, NIAD, October 1997


Hall C Obstacles to the Integration of University Qualifications and Courses into the National Qualifications Framework. Nga Taumata Matauranga O Aotearoa Higher Education in New Zealand Occasional Paper Number 1, Educational Development Centres of New Zealand Universities, 1994

New Zealand Qualification Authority A Qualification Framework for New Zealand: An Introduction to the Framework, Wellington, 1992. For an up-to-date account see

http://nzqa.govt.nz/services/ frameworkexplained.html

The National Qualifications Framework and the Universities, Wellington, New Zealand Vice-Chancellors' Committee, 1994


Brandstrom D et al Evaluation of NORDPLUS- the Nordic Programme for the mobility of university students and teachers, Vol 1/2, Nordic Council of Ministers, 1992

NORDPLUS http:siu.no/vev.nsf/info/NordplusEn-9ED26

Overview of Swedish Higher Education



CNAA Credits for Change: the CNAA Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme and the Universities, London, 1989

Davidson G Credit Accumulation and Transfer in British Universities, 1990-93, the report of the 'CATS and Continuing Education project, UACE and the University of Kent at Canterbury, 1994

Dockrell R, Reeve F and Osborne M 'Access to Higher Education through the Accreditation of Work-Based Learning' in Journal of Further and Higher Education, Number 20(2), Summer 1996

Evans N and Turner A The Potential of the Assessment of Experiential Learning in Universities, London, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1993

Gregg PL 'Modularisation: what academics think' in Modular Higher Education in the UK in Focus, HEQC, London, 1996

HEFCE Widening Access to Higher Education - A report by the HEFCE's advisory group on access and participation, ref M/9/96, HEFCE, Bristol, 1996


HEQC Modular Higher Education in the UK in Focus, HEQC, London, 1996

HEQC Credit in Higher Education: a review and position paper: 1997, HEQC, London, in print

HEQC/COSHEP The SCOTCAT Quality Assurance Handbook 1995, HEQC, London, 1995

HESA The Shape and Size of Higher Education in the Mid-1990s, HESA, Cheltenham, 1996

Howleson C 'Parity of Vocational and Academic Awards: the experience of modularisation in Scotland', European Journal of Education, Vol 28 No 2, 1993

InCCA (Inter-Consortium Credit Agreement) A Common Framework for Learning, DfEE, 1998

NCIHE (National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education) Education in the Learning Society, Report of the National Committee (the 'Dearing Report'), HMSO, London, 1997 (view at http://www.liv.ac.uk/qau/ achndbk/chpt16/16ncihe.html) For the UK Government's response see http://www.lifelonglearning.co.uk

NICATS Report of the Northern Ireland Credit Accumulation and Transfer System (NICATS) Project, Ulster, 1999

The Potential of the Assessment of Experiential Learning in Universities, Learning from Experience Trust, Chelmsford, UK, 1995

QAA (the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education) A Consultation Paper on Qualifications Frameworks, QAA, Gloucester, 1998 (available on-line at http://www.qaa.ac.uk/ - NQF)

Robbins Lord Report of the Committee on Higher Education, Cmnd 2154, HMSO, 1963

Robertson D 'Choosing to Change: Extending Access, Choice and Mobility in Higher Education', Report of the HEQC CAT Development Project, HEQC, London, 1994

SCQF (the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework) Adding Value to Learning: the Scottish credit and qualifications framework, SCQF, Glasgow, 1999

Thomson A 'New Labour, New Year, New Degree', in The Times Higher Education Supplement, No 1414, 10 December 1999

Trow M 'Problems in the transition from elite to mass higher education' in OECD ed, Policies for Higher Education, Paris, OECD, 1974

Trowler P 'Responses of Academics to Credit-Based Modularity in an Expanding Higher Education System', in Modular Higher Education in the UK in Focus, HEQC, 1996

Trowler P 'What Managerialists Forget: higher education frameworks and managerialist ideology', in International Studies in Sociology of Education, Vol 8 No 1, 1998

Tuck R, Lee BS and Bennet Y A Self-Assessment Model for the Integration of Work-Based Learning with Academic Assessment, report of the project, University of Huddersfield and Employment Department 1992

University of Cambridge Board of Continuing Education Towards a Credit Framework, feasibility study, 1994

University of Central Lancashire MODCATS - a report on a credit accumulation and transfer scheme, Preston, 1993

University of Portsmouth Partnership Programme for work-based learning, University of Portsmouth, 1993

Watson D 'Modularity: for and against', in Modular Higher Education in the UK in Focus, HEQC, London, 1996

Watson D and Taylor R Lifelong Learning and the University: A Post-Dearing Agenda, Falmer Press, London, 1998

Welsh Higher Education CATS Forum Welsh CATS Project: Interim Report, Cardiff, 1993

Wilson P 'Developing a Post-16 CAT Framework; the technical specifications', in FEU Discussing Credit, London, 1993

Wolfson G 'Prior Learning Assessment: A Case Study of Acceptance of Innovation and Change' in 27th Annual SCUTREA Conference Proceedings 1997, Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults, University of Leeds, 1997


Adelman C and Silver H Accreditation: the American experience, CNAA, London, 1990

Admission Standards for Undergraduate Transfer Students: A Policy Analysis, AIR Annual Forum Paper, 1996

Articulation Report, Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee, 1996

The Assessment of Prior Learning and the Accrediting Process, Proceedings of the National Institute of the Assessment of Experiential Learning, Trenton, NJ, Council for Adult and Experiential Learning, National Institute of the Assessment of Experiential Learning, Chicago, 1991

Barba WilliamC and Murphy TimothyL 'American Post-secondary education: unique issues, problems and opportunities' in Philip Mitchell ed Beyond the Universities: the new higher education, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 1998

Bender LouisW Spotlight on the Transfer Function: A National Study of State Policies and Practices, Community College Press, 1990

Christensen James ed Transfer Credit Practices of Designated Educational Institutions. The College Handbook for Transfer Students, Washington DC, American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, College Board, New York,1993

Course Transfer Guide 1995-96. University and Community College System of Nevada, Office of the Chancellor, Reno, 1995

Crawford RL and Skinner AS Credit Transfer in the USA, Study Visit report, Universities in Scotland, September 1990

Creech J Helping students who transfer from two-year to four-year colleges, ERIC # 379015

Donovan Richard A, Forer Bruce and Schaier-Peleg Barbara eds Transfer, Making it Work: A Community College Report, Books on Demand, 1990

Doyle RJ 'Credit for Experiential Learning in Michigan' in Phi Delta Kappan Number 63(4), December 1981

Eells WC The Junior College Houghton Miffin, New York, 1931

ERIC Digest: In the Shadow of Baccalaureate Institutions, ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges, Los Angeles, 1992

Foti PA. Transfer Guides: University at Albany, State University of New York, Sullivan County Community College &Westchester Community College, State University of New York, Albany, 1997

Heffernan JM 'The Credibility of the Credit Hour: The History, Use and Shortcomings of the Credit System', Journal of Higher Education, Vol 44 No 1, 1973

Ivy Tech Program Transfer Agreements with Four-Year Institutions: a Working Paper, Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis, 1995

Joint Statement on Transfer and Award of Academic Credit (AACRAO, ACE, CPA)

Guidelines for Life/Work Experience Credit Evaluation, Office of Adult Education, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Rutherford, NJ, 1992

Kells HR and Paris RM, Trends in the Accreditation Relationships of US Postsecondary Institutions 1978-85, Council on Postsecondary Education, Washington DC, 1986

Kintzner Frederick An historical and futuristic perspective of articulation and transfer in the US, ERIC # 38980

Knoell Dorothy M and Ahumada Martin M Transfer, Articulation and Collaboration: Twenty-Five Years Later, American Association of Community Colleges, Community College Press, 1990

Moore A Background Paper for the State Commission on Articulation and Transfer, Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus, Ohio, 1989. For the up-to-date policy see


'Prisoners of Elitism: The Community College's Struggle for Stature' in New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 78, September 1992

Rogers GE Community Colleges: An Untapped Resource for Industrial Teacher Education, Denver,1995

Rothblatt S 'The American Modular System' in Berdahl R et al Quality and Access in Higher Education, SRHE, 1991

Rubi DC Survey on the Transferability of Associate's Degree to Four-Year Institutions, Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges , Phoenix, 1994

Rubin Larry et al Developing a Computerized Multicampus Transfer Information System, University of Wisconsin/Wisconsin Technical College System, 1995

Schweiger H Open and Distance Learning: Alternative Approaches to the Delivery of Post-Secondary Education. An Identification of Trends, a Discussion of Issues, and a Review of Models, Discussion paper, Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board, St. Paul, 1994

'Transfer and Articulation: Improving Policies to Meet New Needs' in New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 96, Winter 1996

Transfer Credit Practices of Designated Educational Institutions (1998-2000), AACRAO, 1998 http://www.aacrao.com

Transferring General Education Credit from Indiana Vocational Technical College to Other Institutions: A Progress Report, Indiana State Commission for Higher Education , Indianapolis, 1995

Trow M 'The Exceptionalism of American Higher Education', in Trow M and Nybron T eds University and Society, 1991

Report Menu  Prev Chapter